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World Health Organization : Year 1999 ; Communicable Diseases and Emerging Infectious Diseases ; Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Edc, No. 99.8: Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Epidemic Dysentery and Cholera

By World Health Organization

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Book Id: WPLBN0000118030
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Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Year 1999 ; Communicable Diseases and Emerging Infectious Diseases ; Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Edc, No. 99.8: Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Epidemic Dysentery and Cholera  
Author: World Health Organization
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
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Publisher: World Health Organization

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Organization, W. H. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Year 1999 ; Communicable Diseases and Emerging Infectious Diseases ; Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Edc, No. 99.8. Retrieved from http://cn.ebooklibrary.org/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
Introduction Cholera and dysentery have afflicted humankind for centuries. The epidemics they cause have affected the outcome of wars and the fates of countries. In much of the world, epidemic cholera and dysentery are uncommon, but during the past decade these two diseases have re-emerged as causes of significant morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. Only a few pathogens cause epidemic diarrhea, although there are many that cause sporadic diarrhea. In developing countries, two etiologic agents are responsible for most epidemic diarrhea: toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, which causes watery diarrhea, and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, which causes bloody diarrhea. Recently, two additional organisms have emerged to cause epidemic diarrhea, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139, which causes watery diarrhea, and Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7, which causes bloody diarrhea. The latter is a common agent of diarrhea only in developed countries.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents Acknowledgments Introduction Chapter 1. The Public Health Role of Clinical Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . 1 A. Epidemic Diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. Public Health Role of the Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Chapter 2. Collection and Transport of Fecal Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . 7 A. Collection of Stool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B. Preparing Specimens for Shipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Chapter 3. Epidemiology of Dysentery Caused by Shigella . . . . . . . . . 13 A. Epidemiology of Shigella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 B. Clinical Manifestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 C. Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Chapter 4. Isolation and Identification of Shigella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 A. Isolation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 B. Biochemical Screening Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 C. Serologic Identification of Shigella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 D. Media for Isolation and Identification of Shigella . . . . . . . . 28 Chapter 5. Etiology and Epidemiology of Cholera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 A. Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 B. Clinical Manifestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 C. Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 D. Epidemiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 E. Cholera Vaccine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Chapter 6. Isolation and Identification of Vibrio cholerae Serogroups O1 and O139 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 A. Isolation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 B. Serologic Identification of V. cholerae O1 and O139 . . . . . 49 C. Media and Reagents for V. cholerae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Chapter 7. Epidemiology of Escherichia coli Serotype O157:H7 . . . . . 55 Chapter 8. Isolation and Identification of Escherichia coli Serotype O157:H7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 A. Isolation and Identification Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 B. Preparation and Quality Control of Sorbitol-MacConkey Agar 60 Chapter 9. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (Agar Disk Diffusion Method) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 A. Considerations for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing . . . . . 61 B. Procedure for Agar Disk Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 C. Special Considerations for Susceptibility Testing of Vibrio cholerae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 D. Preparation and Quality Control of Media and Reagents . . 71

 
 



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