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Star Clusters

By: Shapley, Harlow.

... and the Relative Speed of Blue and Yellow Light 108 IX. THE TRANSPARENCY OF SPACE. . . 113 38. Early Investigations of Light Scattering 114 39. Blue ... ...119 42. The Coma- Virgo Group of Nebulae 120 43. The Obstruction of Light in Space 121 X. THE PERIOD-LUMINOSITY CURVE ... 125 44. Historical Notes 125... ...g of sidereal bodies. i. The Significance of Clusters. In time as well as in space we are involved in clustering tendencies we witness the sidereal un... ...lations, the majority of the bright starsarenowknown to lie near together in space and to form physical systems. Such constellation groups are Taurus,... ...r; yet since they are among the fixed stars . . . they cannot fail to occupy spaces immensely great, and perhaps not less than our whole solar system.... ...USTERS 21 are given in Appendix A, and a discussion of their distribution in space appears in later chapters. The remarkable contrast in the galactic ... ...oint of photovisual magnitudes than to a differential scattering of light in space, is of no consequence in the present comparison of colors for the t... ...ales relative to one another, and also of the absence of light scattering in space. CHAPTER V THE DISTRIBUTION OF STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS A FULL k... ... GLOBULAR CLUSTERS A FULL knowledge of the distribution of stars in time and space is, of course, an unattainable dream. If we had, indeed, a clear pi...

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Theories of the Universe: From Babylonian Myth to Modern Science.

By: Munitz, Milton K.

...eavens is prompted to speculate about the beginning and end of things, about space, time, and creation. The questions as formulated by modern scientif... ...ils that went into the production of this book as well as a companion volume Space, Time and Creation. I am most grateful also to Professor Paul Edwar... ...n the Universe as a Whole 275 Edwin P. Hubble (1889-1953) The Exploration of Space 280 Willem De Sitter (1872-1935) Relativity and Modern Theories of ... ...odern Theories of the Universe 302 Arthur S. Eddington (1882-1944) Spherical Space 320 Georges Lemaitre (1894- ) The Primeval Atom 339 E. A. Milne (18... ...ond reach by observational means. The light coming from these far reaches of space travels over distances that needs to be reckoned in terms of billio... ...falsely derived chaos from yeTo-Scn, but remembered that it meant 'the empty space between heaven and earth.' 12 It is probable that in the sixth and ... ...re vitiated by the introduction of the later idea of strictly infinite empty space. I do not think chaos is ever called orrrcipov, and if it were, tha... ...emise on which the answer rested was not wholly unreasonable. For unless the space in which the stars revolve is completely void, the matter that fill... ...nder of embryology, has asked if there is not "perhaps a murmur in universal space, a harmony of the spheres, audible to quite other ears than ours." ...

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The Stars of High Luminosity

By: Payne, Cecilia H.

...r unit mass), and exceed- ingly uncommon. The infrequency of the supergiant in space has an important bearing on its age and history, arguing for unli... ...lete survey down to a given apparent magnitude embraces a far larger volume of space for the two latter. 8 On the other hand, because of their greater... ...he novae down to a given apparent magnitude are visible throughout a volume of space a thousand times greater than for the long period variables. A su... ...de. These findings are of such significance that it is worth spending a little space on considering the matter from a rather different aspect. 7 Trump... ...the condition of the atmosphere or the sur- roundings, and is not an effect of spacereddening orsuch proc- ess. If it were otherwise the fainter stars... ... in its connection with the reddening of light in passing through interstellar space. The distribution of the reddened stars is not closely parallel w... ...can be induced by particles of appropriate size. But the thought most fatal to space reddening is that if the effect is so large for fourth- and fifth... ...he means of the classes in groups A and F are sum- marized in Table IX, I. The space number is the computed number 2 per 1,000,000 cubic parsecs. TABL... ...n the sky, and well represented in catalogues, but statistically negligible in space. 14 The A stars are important for many reasons: their position in...

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The Stars and the Mind: A Study of the Impact of Astronomical Development on Human Thought

By: Davidson, Martin

...s so small, theshadow ofthe earth stretched for an infinite distance through space. As the light of the stars seen through the shadow is not overpower... ...re, the circuit being completed in 24 hours. It is impossible in the limited space at our disposal to deal with the views of all the early Greek philo... ...astronomy would have been very much delayed. Aristotle taught that motion in space is of three kinds motion in a straight line, motion in a circle, an... ...rcular motion is natural. This fifth element, which occupies the outer- most space, was called the " aether," and is more divine than the other elemen... ...d the stars, which are eternal, intelligent, and divine, and it occupies all space from the outside limit of the universe to the moon, though it is no... ...e it. Such a vault was supposed to exist and, with the firmament, enclosed a space where are the storehouses of the rain, hail, and snow. The Book of ... ...winds ; LL the storehouses of the upper waters, of snow, and of hail ; M the space occupied by the air, within which the clouds move ; NN the waters o... ...and rightly, that because the stars showed no parallax, there must be a vast space between them and Saturn. It was a simple step from this view to the... ...nomy, the eternal and unchangeable rule of the motion of celestial bodies in space. The glory of Kepler is written in the heavens ; the advances of sc...

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Starlight

By: Shapley, Harlow.

...ific vip-w of the place of man ari$ man's earth in the expanse of time and space revealed by discoveries of modern astronomy. Many of the matters disc... ...E CURRENT THEORY OF STELLAR EVOLUTION 70 VIII. CONCERNING THE EMPTINESS OF SPACE . . 77 IX. CELKSTIAL COLLISIONS AND ENCOUNTERS 86 X. THE EARTH'S ORIG... ... OF THE STELLAR UNIVERSE CHAPTER ,,AGE XL STAR FAMILIES Ill XII. MEASURING SPACE 121 XII F. THE SIZE AND FORM OF THE MILKY WAY 128 XIV. ATTENDANTS OF ... ...tars grouped together on the surface of the sky are actually associated in space. Their relative positions are not solely an accident of pro- jection.... ...cussing the evolution of stars and planets and the measurement of sidereal space. Motions of Stars and Planets The brighter planets can be observed sl... ...heir own, and although the earth and sun are also mov- ing rapidly through space, the distances sepa- rating stars and solar system are so great that ... ...ed with partial success. [261 II IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD IN THE part of space that we may call the neighborhood of the sun, there are hun- dreds of... ...te magni- tude, one of the faintest objects ever found. Its motion through space is the same as that of Alpha Centauri, around which it probably revol... ... of the spectrum, however, gives us only a part of the total veloc- ity in space; it gives in kilometers or miles per second the radial velocity, the ...

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The Stability of Rotating Liquid Masses

By: Lyttleton, R. A

... A = v nl I V V Ml M 2 These equations determine the requisite step 8^ (in a space of n+ 1 dimensions) from a known equilibrium configuration a t to a... ...If a particle of mass m has coordinates (#, y, z) in the rotating frame, its space velocity at any instant will be (x a>y,y +wx y z). Hence the kineti... ...f the ellipsoid (1) and we wish to find a harmonic function V defined in all space that takes these values on the ellipsoid. Let O(/x, v) denote the g... ...ion of unit density and depth ofthe form then the potential at all points of space can be written down at once as F(outside) = S-^L L^S F(inside) = X ... ...e distribution LIOUVILLE'S FORMULA 83 its potential at a general point P of space can be written down directly. In fact, if Q denotes the distance of... ...x^plp-t-^(tf + y*) = ^ (3) where, in the first instance, ^ is independent of space coordinates. But XQ nmst also be independent of time, since in a na... ...e, since in a natural equilibrium configuration p and </> depend only on the space coordinates x, y, z. Supposing now that there exists some configura... ...x, ?/, or z. But any terms not containing x, y, z can be omitted, since only space differentiations of x enter the equations of motion. Thus we may wr... ...of the first order, the contribution to the potential (at a general point of space) by the column PN may be calculated as if it were all situated at P...

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Space Astrophysics

By: Liller, William.

...x This book should be returned on or before the date last marked below. SPACE ASTROPHYSICS The University of Michigan Institute of Science and Tec... ...nd Technology Series ALLEN 'Molecular Control of Cellular Activity LILLER' Space Astrophysics SPACE ASTROPHYSICS Edited by William Liller Professor o... ...rd University McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York Toronto London 1961 SPACE ASTROPHYSICS Copyright @1961 by the McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Pr... ...ysics which were either concerned with or could only be studied from outer space. The purpose of these lectures, which have now been gathered together... ...n the following pages, was twofold: first, to bring to Ann Arbor lead- ing space scientists and have them describe to the students and staff the work ... ... work in which they were currently engaged; and second, to give members of space projects at the University an opportunity to ask questions of these o... ...adiation (continued) 74 H. E. Hinteregger 5. Some Plans for Experiments in Space 96 B. Rossi 6. X-ray and Ultraviolet Radiation Measurements from Rock... ...TION III: THE INSTRUMENTATION 13. Astrostats for Astrophysical Research in Space 185 R. A. Nidey 14. Attitude Control of Artificial Satellites 205 R. ... .... Newton 15. Choice of Grating Mountings Suitable for a Monochromator in a Space Telescope 228 T. Namioka Index 269 viii Section I. The Experiments 1...

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The Solar System and Its Origin

By: Norris, Russell Henry.

...ecisive. The bodies which compose our system share a common motion through space. They are and have been per- manent companions; and it is altogether ... ... distant companions, self-luminous but faint, which share their piotion in space, and are presumably of common origin. Alpha Centauri itself has such ... ...han its brilliant associate, separated from it by 2 11' in the sky, and in spaceby at least ten thousand times the Earth's distance from the Sun. To u... ...ge it, and these are negligibly small so long as the system is isolated in space. For a planet moving in a circular orbit the angular momentum is the ... ...y, as the accurate measurement of parallax has done for great distances in space. The fundamental principle is now a matter of gen- eral knowledge. If... ...act masses of iron which fallnow and then on the Earth from interplanetary space. Paneth, from a careful study of 24 such bodies, finds an average age... ...r us and to one an- other at the same time, crowded into a small volume of space from which they have receded to their present wide dispersion. This m... .... But, if this were so, and the nebulae really moving in all directions in space, there is no reason why some of the fast-moving ones should not be fa... ...ial universe at large ad- mit of a variety of solutions. In some of these, space itself is finite (re-entrant) but is expanding growing farther round,...

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The Serial Universe

By: Dunne, J. W.

...velocity. Did I say c specks ' ? They were not specks, but waves filling all space. Photographs proved it. Worse, each ofthese wave- entities needed a... ...ional world to itself, so that no two could be together in the same ordinary space. Did I say 'waves'? I am sorry, they were specks in one and the sam... ... as a purely personal appendage as subjective as any Solipsist could desire. Space and timehad notvanished : they had 19 2-2 INTRODUCTION done worse:... ... 19 2-2 INTRODUCTION done worse: they had become interchangeable. And the c space-time 5 world of the relativists appeared to be governed throughout ... ...ich ought to have been consecutive havebecome superimposed. Waves, particles,space-time,quanta andevensense- data must, we feel, fit together in some ... ...pertain to any great-great-grandchild. Unfortunately, wecannot reach, in the space at our disposal, the ultimate ancestor; but we shall find that a gr... ... represent the original states by dots, and their intended time order by the space order in which those dots are placed in the page. That, of course, ... ...hat a few people would regard as begging a question. Is it legitimate to use space order for our first attempt at representing time order? Actually, t... ...e, but deny that they can be regarded as separated in the way that points of space are separated. Very well, our original descriptions of the three di...

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The Scientific Papers Volume I

By: William, Herschel Sir.

...racted from these valuable materials and brought within reasonable limits of space, has been given in the Introduction to the present volumes. Many in... ... ...... Ixxxiii On the electrical Fluid ........ Ixxxiii On the Existence of Space ........ Ixxxiv Continuation of the Experiments on Glass Drops . ..... ...o recognise that there must be some kind of luminous fluid here and there in space. From thence he lost interest in the scattered clusters, and after ... ... there was not one of the small stars, though I examined at least 60 in that space, which had more than a stellar diameter. A planet of one tenth the ... ... have seen it. It would be difficult to compress within reasonable limits of space an epitome of Herschel's experience in polishing specula, but it se... ...d a firm centre B. This would carry the centre of the speculum over the same space which C describes, which is the " length of the stroke " and can be... ...780. XV. On the Electrical Fluid. Read May 5, 1780. XVI. On the Existence of Space. Read May 12, 1780. XVII. Continuation of the Experiments on Glass ... ... it. This gives us the power of the Instrument. For to make '09 inch cover a space of 6 inches it is required to magnify 66f times, or neglecting frac... ... the repulsion of deflection, acts, when he was so particular as to mark the spaces taken up by the fringes of light that are seen about shadows. That...

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Telescopes

By: Kuiper, Gerard. P; Middlehurst, Barbara. M

...f these three classes is described in this volume in two or more chapters. Space telescopes have at present not yet attained the full development that... ...image. Eight directions of ap- proach of the knife-edge were photographed, spaced at intervals of 45. Figur- ing was carried out by Don Hendrix with a... ...ors for the coude and Cassegrain foci, while the upper part is the working space for the observer. The prime focus is located about 30 inches above th... ... machinedand rest on pads which are accurately machined to match. Into the space between, oil is pumped at a pressure of about 300 pounds per square i... ...nch-thick steel and aluminum boxes filled with crumpled aluminum foil. The space between these two layers is vented at the top and bottom of the dome,... ...scope and Its Possibilities," Science, 69,1. HALE, G. E. 1934 "Deeper into Space," Atlantic Monthly 153, 463. MCCAULEY, G. V. 1934 "Making the Glass D... ...g, with one focus of the ellipse on the optical axis of the telescope. The space is minimal to contain the observer and auxiliary equipment. The obser... ...ptics and maintain the direction of the optical axis with high accuracy in space. The number of ways that this basic function can be performed is so l... ...shown in cross-section in Figure 1. The basic aim was to give maximum work space to the astronomer and to ac- commodate Cassegrain instruments up to 7...

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The Telescope

By: Bell, Louis

...sh units. Certain branches of the subject are not here discussed for lack of space or because there is recent literature at hand to which reference ca... ... distant o a' FIG. 4. Diagram of Galileo's Telescope. object the lenses were spaced at the difference of their focal lengths, and the magnifying power... ..., though it is the basis of the micrometer. The lenses o and e are obviously spaced at the sum of their focal lengths, and as before the magnifying po... ...ne finds the first of the diaphragms, E. These are commonly 3 to 6 in number spaced about equally down the tube, and are far more important than they ... ...an outward flange /, tapped for 3 close pairs of adjusting screws as si, s\i spaced at 120 apart. The objective cell itself, b, is recessed for the ob... ...wo lenses of the achromatic objective are usually very slightly separated by spacers, either tiny bits of tinfoil 120 apart, or a very thin ring with ... ...ts, and quite usually the pair as a whole rests below on three corresponding spacers. Of each pair of adjusting screws one as 1 in the pair Sn is thre... ...the objective to make them meet in such orderly fashion even over an angular space of a single degree, and the wider the view required the more diffic... ...IG. 54. TheFraun- of the crown; hence the two must be separated er ypes * by spacers at the edge, which in small lenses in simple cells is slightly in...

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A Textbook of Practical Astronomy

By: John Nassau Jason.

... with the sun atone ofthe foci. As viewed from a far-off northern point in space, they move about 1 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY the sun in a counterclockwise... ...a counterclock- wise direction (as viewed from a far-off northern point in space). This is the direction from west to east. 3. Its mean density is abo... ...o occupy the center of this sphere. In reality, the stars are scattered in space and we, in their midst, project their images on this imaginary sphere... ... wires are horizontal. Now see if the image of the second mark bisects the space between the parallel wires. If so, the telescope is adjusted; if not,... .... The circle of the theodolite is usually graduated into *-J M FIG. 43. 5' spaces and when the microscope is properly adjusted five turns of the screw... ... is properly adjusted five turns of the screw will move the wires over one space. Hence, one complete revolution of the screw carries the parallel wir... ...n as the error of runs and is determined from time to time by measuring 5' spaces in different parts of the circle. To illustrate, let the average rea...

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