Biology


Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines. Among the most important topics are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology.

 
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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 640: Worl...

By: E. G. Beausoleil

Medical Reference Publication

The WHO Expert Committee on Malaria met in Geneva from 20 February to 1 March 1979. The meeting was opened on behalf of the Director-General by Dr I. D. Ladnyi, Assistant Director-General, who pointed out that, although in 1978 the general trend was towards a reduction in the number of malaria cases in some countries, the unchanged endemic levels in Africa south of the Sahara, the resurgence of the disease in other parts of the world, the financial difficulties faced by ...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 644: Opti...

By: G. E. Adams

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION A WHO Meeting of Investigators on the Optimization of Radiotherapy, particularly for Developing Countries, met in St John's College, Cambridge, England, from 11 to 15 September 1978. Dr W. Seelentag, Chief Medical Officer, Radiation Medicine, World Health Organization, opened the meeting on behalf of Dr H. Mahler, Director-General of WHO. It was stressed that optimization in the sense used by the Meeting means making the best use of existing manpower and ...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Science and T...

By: Marcia S. Smith

Summary: Science and technology have a pervasive influence over a wide range of issues confronting the nation. Decisions on how much federal funding to invest in research and development (R&D), and determining what programs have the highest priority, may have implications for homeland security, new high technology industries, government/private sector cooperation in R&D, and myriad other areas. This report provides an overview of key science and technology policy issues ...

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The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United Stat...

By: Charles S. Robb

Excerpt: With this letter, we transmit the report of the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction. Our unanimous report is based on a lengthy investigation, during which we interviewed hundreds of experts from inside and outside the Intelligence Community and reviewed thousands of documents. Our report offers 74 recommendations for improving the U.S. Intelligence Community (all but a handhl of which we believe...

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Rate Constants for Reactions of Inorganic Radicals in Aqueous Solution

By: Pedatsur Neta

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Since the publication of the original compilation on this topic in 1979' the number of measured rate constants for reactions of inorganic radicals has more than doubled. Because of the importance of these radicals as basic chemical species, in the study of electron transfer theory, as well as in atmospheric and industrial processes, it is necessary to update the compilation. The present tables include the rate constants presented in the original compilation...

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Critical Review of Rate Constants for Reactions of Transients from...

By: George V. Buxton

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: This publication is the first supplement to the set of data sheets of critically evaluated data for combustion processes published in the Journal of Chemical Reference Data 21, 41 1-734...

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Electron Interactions with C3F

By: L.G. Cnrlstcphcrou

Technical Reference Publication

Introduction: Perfluoropropane (C3b8) is a plasma processing gas and is a replacement for chlorofluorocarbons because it is not harmful to stratospheric ozone. However, like other similar compounds (e.g., CF4, and C2F6) it is a global warming gas. Its global warming potential over a 100-year period is 7000 compared to that of C02 taken equal to one and its lifetime in the stratosphere is 2600 years. By comparison, the respective global warming potentials of CF4 and C2F6 ...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 2001, Issue5, 79 (5) 4...

By: Tarik Kassaye

Medical Reference Publication

The Executive Board held its first session in Geneva, from 16 to 28 July, towards the end of and immediately following the first World Health Assembly.1 Normally, the members of the Board - eighteen persons designated by as many Member States - will serve for three-year terms. However, for the Board elected by the first Health Assembly a provision was made in the Constitution for six members to hold office for one year, six for two, and six for three years. The Health As...

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World Health Organization : Year 1992 ; World Health Organization,...

By: L. B. Calheiros, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

The WHO Expert Committee on Malaria met in Geneva from 6 to 14 November 1989. The meeting was opened on behalf of the Director-General by Dr T. Bektimirov, Assistant Director-General, who pointed out that during the last decade no progress had been made towards reducing the global malaria ~roblem while new impedimenta to sustained control had emerged. In particular, during the past two years there had been some dramatic outbreaks of epidemic malaria. The impact of the ma...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2000 ; Issue 92415302...

By: R. Benson

Medical Reference Publication

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This CICAD on chloral hydrate was prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is based on the US EPA’s Toxicological review on chloral hydrate (US EPA, 2000). Scientific literature identified as of March 1999 was included. Information on the nature of the review processes and the availability of the source document is presented in Appendix 3. Information on the peer review of this CICAD is presented in Appendix 4. This CICAD was appr...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web China and Pro...

By: Shirley A. Kan

Summary: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the national interest in reducing the role of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China’s technology reportedly include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran and North Korea. This report discusses the national security problem of China’s r...

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China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missile...

By: Shirley A. Kan

Summary: Congress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances the U.S. interest in reducing the role of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China’s technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran, North Korea, and Libya. The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, added an urgent U.S. inter...

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Third Annual Report: Astrobiology Insitute: by Rosalind A. Grymes

Excerpt: The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established to encourage and fund astrobiological research in basic science and to support the space-venturing missions of NASA. Humans have a long-term interest probably pre-dating written history in the questions, Are we alone in the Universe? Is life unique events that occurred only on our own Earth, or do we exist in a life-rich Cosmos? These, coupled with the other fundamental questions, How did life begin? and What...

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The Availability of Primary Copper in Market Economy Countries

By: Kenneth E. Porter

ABSTRACT: The U.S. Bureau of Mines has estimated the potential availab'ity of copper from 204 mines and deposits in market economy couhtries (MEC's). The evaluated properties have demonstrated resources totaling 436.4 million metric tons of contained copper and account for 90% of the Bureau of Mimes reserve base for copper in market economy countries. Total recoverable MEC copper resources are 340.8 million metric tons, 69% of which is from producing mines and 31% from n...

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Dewatering of Alaska Placer Effluent Using Peo

By: Sandeep K. Sharma and J. Scheiner

ABSTRACT: The U.S. Bureau of Mines has been investigating new techniques to improve the dewatering of mineral slurries, to recover water lost in the waste slurry, and to produce dewatered solids suitable for disposal. As part of this investigation, a study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of dewatering Alaska placer effluent. Based on the laboratory tests, preliminary field tests were conducted on three placer mines in Alaska. At these mines, the water recov...

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World Health Organization : Year 1999 ; World Health Organization,...

By: Tord Kjellstrom

Medical Reference Publication

Acknowledgements This text was developed under the auspices of the former Office of Global and Integrated Environmental Health of the World Health Organization (WHO). Financial and other assistance was provided by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Although not formally on the editorial committee, the following individuals made substantial contributions to the editorial process: Carlos CorvalAn Eugene Schwartz Colin Soskolne Jacqueline Sawyer of ...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Iran : U. S. ...

By: Kenneth Katzman

Summary: The Bush Administration has pursued several avenues to attempt to contain or end the potential threat posed by Iran, at times pursuing limited engagement, and at other times leaning toward pursuing efforts to change Iran’s regime. Some experts believe a potential crisis is looming over Iran’s nuclear program because the Bush Administration is skeptical that efforts by several European allies to prevent a nuclear breakout by Iran will succeed, although the Admini...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Federal Prote...

By: Erin D. Williams

Summary: The Common Rule (45 CFR 46, Subpart A) governs research that is conducted on human beings if it is funded by one of 18 federal agencies. It requires a review of proposed research by an Institutional Review Board (IRB), the informed consent of research subjects, and institutional assurances of compliance with the regulations. In 1974, 45 CFR 46 was published following some cases of harm to human subjects, such as those caused by thalidomide drug trials and the Un...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Globalizing C...

By: Sharon A. Squassoni

Summary: Increasingly, Congress and the Bush Administration are looking to utilize nonproliferation assistance programs, including cooperative threat reduction, to help reduce the risk of terrorist access to weapons of mass destruction (WMD). In the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-176, Sec. 1308), Congress authorized the Bush Administration to spend $50 million of unobligated funds from the Cooperative Threat Reduction Program in states outside the fo...

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Cuba : Issues for the 109Th Congress

By: Mark P. Sullivan

Summary: Cuba under Fidel Castro remains a hard-line communist state with a poor record on human rights -- a record that has worsened significantly since 2003. With the cutoff of assistance from the former Soviet Union, Cuba experienced severe economic deterioration from 1989-1993. While there has been some improvement since 1994, as Cuba has implemented limited reforms, the economy remains in poor shape.

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