Biology


Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines. Among the most important topics are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology.

 
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The Golden Bough Vol. 2 : Chapter 57, Section 4, On Scapegoats in ...

By: James George Frazer, Produced by Klaus- Dieter Mundt. Rügener

The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion is a wide-ranging, comparative study of mythology and religion, written by Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941). It was first published in two volumes in 1890; and the third edition, published 1906–15, comprised twelve volumes. The work was aimed at a wide literate audience raised on tales as told in such publications as Thomas Bulfinch's The Age of Fable, or Stories of Gods and Heroes (1855). It offe...

The Golden Bough attempts to define the shared elements of religious belief to scientific thought, discussing fertility rites, human sacrifice, the dying god, the scapegoat and many other symbols and practices which have influenced the 20th century. Its thesis is that old religions were fertility cults that revolved around the worship of, and periodic sacrifice of, a sacred king. Specifically, that mankind progresses from magic through religious belief to scientific thought.

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1953; Volume 9, Number...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

A Working Group on Sodium, Chlorides and Conductivity in Drinking- Water was convened in Voorburg (The Hague) from 1 to 5 May 1978 by the WHO Regional Office for Europe in collaboration with the Netherlands Ministry of Health and Environmental Protection. In the 1977 Working Group on Health Hazards from Drinking-Water, held in London, several participants suggested that there should be further discussion on sodium and related parameters in drinking-water. This recommenda...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1981; Volume 59, Numbe...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

For several decades there has been mounting concern over assuring continued and responsible involvement of human subjects in biomedical research. Many international organizations, national agencies, professional scientific groups, and science-research institutions have established guidelines and procedures to standardize and/or regulate the experimentation in which humans take part. In some countries comprehensive mechanisms have been designed to insure and document the ...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1985; Volume 63, Numbe...

By: L. V. Deverajan

Medical Reference Publication

A resolution adopted by the twenty-sixth session of the WHO Regional Committee for Europe in 1976 requested the Regional Director to convene a consultative group to advise on the development of a medium-term programme on prevention of road traffic accidents. The Group recommended that, within that programme, priority be given to a study of the problem of alcohol and medical drugs as major risk factors in road traffic accidents.

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1991; Volume 69, Numbe...

By: D. Forste

Medical Reference Publication

Since the discoveries of Jenner and Pasteur in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the medical sciences have made enormous progress in the control of infectious diseases. One measure of that progress was the eradication of smallpox. which was announced by WHO on 8 May 1980. The eradication of smallpox was a tremendous victory for mankind. It was an indication that scientific progress, when combined with international cooperation, has placed within our reach the poss...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 2001, Issue10, 79 (10)...

By: Anthony Mbewu

Medical Reference Publication

It has long been recognized that the solution of certain problems in the field of health depends upon international action. The repea$ed and painful efforts in the Nineteenth Century to solvc somc of thcsc problcms borc fruit in the creation, during the last fifty years, of a number of international health organizations -the Pan American Sanitary Bureau, the International Office of Public Health, the Health Organization of the League of Nations and the Health Division of...

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World Health Organization : Year 1991, World Health Organization, ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

In this report, presentations and discussions on multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) from the collaborative WHO/ICBDMS meeting on methodology for birth defects monitoring, held in Sydney, Australia, from 6-7 September 1991, are summarized.

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World Health Organization : Year 1993 ; World Health Organization ...

By: A. O. Adebajo

Medical Reference Publication

The meeting was opened by Dr N.G. Khaltaev on behalf of the Director-General. Dr Khaltaev welcomed the members of the Task Force to Geneva. Dr Khaltaev summarized the prepared remarks which noted that the rheumatic diseases were important to world health because they limit work performance and social integration. Osteoporosis has become the focus of public awareness as an important disease in public health, particularly because of high fracture rates and subsequent morbi...

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World Health Organization : Year 1995 : Communicable Diseases and ...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

A meeting on the traiismissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) was held in Geneva, Switzerland, from 17-19 May 1995. This group of diseases includes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) which was first described in the United Kingdom but which has occurred subsequently in several other countries.

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World Health Organization : Year 1996 ; World Health Organization,...

By: Wilfried Kreisel

Medical Reference Publication

It is a great honour for me, on behalf of the Director-General of WHO, Dr Hiroshi Nakajima, to open this 6th Coordination Meeting of WHO Collaborating Centres of the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network (REMPAN). First of all, I should like to express my gratitude to Dr I. Shigematsu, Chainixm of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and President of Hiroshima International Council for Health Care of the Radiationexposed (HICARE), fo...

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World Health Organization : Year 1999 ; World Health Organization,...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Acknowledgements The Department of Nutrition for Health and Development at the World Health Organization (WHO), wishes to thank the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) for the financial support that made the production of this document possible, and all those who generously gave their time to comment on an earlier draft version, especially Ken Bailey and Jim Akré from the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, WHO, and to Rita Bhatia, UNHCR, ...

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World Health Organization : Year 2002 ; Assessment Document, A7356...

By: Stuart Dobson, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

FOREWORD Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICADs) are the latest in a family of publications from the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) — a cooperative programme of the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). CICADs join the Environmental Health Criteria documents (EHCs) as authoritative documents on the risk assessment of chemicals. Internationa...

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World Health Organization : Year 2004 ; Assessment Document, A8374...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

PREFACE According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) Article 25(1), “everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food… ”. In emergency contexts, it is important to reaffirm the fundamental right of everyone to have access to adequate and safe food. The Humanitarian Charter and the Minimum Standards (1998)1 aim to quantify people’s requirements for water and sanitation, food...

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World Health Organization : Report on a European Syposium Convened...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

PREFACE The review of work representing the United States c o n t r i b u t i o n an Manganese and i t s Compounds i n Relation to Health, 1967-1973, has not i n every instance been r e s t r i c t e d t o t h i s seven-year period. E a r l i e r work was sometimes c i t e d f o r t h e purpose o f providing c l a r i t y t o the subject matter under discussion. Many important foreign references were omitted, i n accordance w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s , i n order t o...

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World Health Organization : Report on a European Syposium Convened...

By: J. Eckert

Medical Reference Publication

The need for the elaboration of strategies and methods for control of zoonoses and foodborne diseases was recognized by the Thirty-first World Health Assembly held in May 1978. In its resolution WHA31.48 on Prevention and control of zoonoses and foodborne disease due to animal products, the Assembly invited Member States to formulate and implement countrywide programmes for the control of these diseases as an integral part of national health programmes and requested the ...

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World Health Organization : Organisation Mondiale de la Sante ; Se...

By: Gordon Covell, M. D.

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION At its fourth session, held in Kampala, Uganda, in December 1950, the Expert Committee on Malaria of the World Health Organization expressed the opinion that it was desirable to bring together for the benefit of the medical profession factual information on the properties of antimalarial drugs, and advised the appointment of a drafting committee to undertake the task. In accordance with this recommendation, a committee was appointed with the following member...

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World Health Organization Publication : The First Ten Years of the...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Ten years ago today, with the coming into force of its Constitution on 7 April 1948, the World Health Organization took its place among the specialized agencies established under the Charter of the United Nations. In this anniversary publication, which it is my privilege to present, an effort has been made not only to review the history of these past ten years but also to place the events of that period against the background of previous achievements, and to indicate the...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 373: Spec...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

INTRODUCTION A Joint FAOIWHO Expert Committee on Food Additives met in Geneva from 11-18 October 1966. The meeting was opened by Dr J. Karefa- Smart, Assistant Director-General, WHO, on behalf of the Directors- General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the World Health Organization. Dr 0 . G. Fitzhugh was unanimously elected Chairman and Professor J. F. Reith, Vice-Chairman. Professor R. Truhaut and Dr W. A. Mannell agreed to serve as ...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 434: Afri...

By: P. Dorolle

Medical Reference Publication

In the field of training and education, and as part of the effort to further interest in the problems of trypanosomiasis, a limited number of fellowships and training grants have been awarded. Two training courses, intended particularly for those working on the problems in the field, were held, one in French in 1964 in Upper Volta and the other in Ensfish the following year in Nigeria. Finally, a joint FAO/WHO Seminar nias held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1966.

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 611: Use ...

By: B. Kwadu Adadevoh

Medical Reference Publication

The mention of specific copains or of certain manufacturas products does not imoly that they are endorsed or recommanded.

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